Basic Classification Of Pigments

Basic classification of pigments

Pigment can be divided into two categories: inorganic pigment and organic pigment, which can be divided into natural pigment and synthetic pigment. As a source of natural pigments in mineral, such as clay, cinnabar, realgar, malachite green, calcium carbonate, silica, barite, talc, mica, kaolin and so on. In biological sources, such as from animal: cochineal, natural fish powder; from plants: Garcinia, alizarin red, indigo etc.. The synthesis of pigment by artificial synthesis, such as titanium white, lithopone, lead chrome yellow, iron blue inorganic pigment, and big red, occasionally yellow, phthalocyanine blue, quinacridone pigment etc.. Classified according to the function of pigments, such as rust preventive pigments, magnetic pigments, luminescent pigments, pearlescent pigments, conductive pigments, etc.. Color classification is a convenient and useful method. Such pigments can be divided into white, yellow, red, blue, green, brown, purple, and black, regardless of their source or chemical composition. The colour index famous "(ColorIndex) is used to color classification method: such as the pigment into yellow pigment (PY), orange pigment (PO), red pigment, Pigment Violet (PR) (PV) (PB), blue pigment, pigment green (PG), brown pigment, pigment (PBr) black and white pigments (PBk) (PW), metal pigment (PM) and other ten categories, the same color pigment according to the order number order, such as PW-6, PW-5, lithopone titanium lead chrome yellow PY-34, quinacridone PR-207, iron oxide red PR-101, phthalocyanine blue PB-15. In order to find the chemical composition, there are other structural numbers, such as titanium dioxide, PW-6C.I.77891, phthalocyanine blue is PB-15C.I.74160, you can make the pigment manufacturers and users can identify the composition and chemical structure of the list of pigments. Therefore, in the international import and export trade of pigments have been widely adopted, some domestic pigment manufacturers also use the international standard of classification of this pigment. China's national standard of pigments, GB/T3182-1995, also uses color classification. The color of each pigment has a mark, such as white is BA, red is HO, yellow is HU...... Combined with the chemical structure of the code and the number of pigment composition models, such as BA-01-03, HU-02-02, rutile titanium dioxide in chrome oxide red HO-01-01, lithopone BA-11-01, toluidine red HO-02-01, BGS LA-61-02, phthalocyanine blue.

According to the classification to pigment containing compounds, inorganic pigments can be subdivided into oxide, chromate, sulfate, silicate, borate, phosphate, molybdate, vanadate and iron thiocyanate, sulfide, metal hydroxide, etc.; organic pigments can be divided according to the chemical structure of compounds azo pigment, phthalocyanine pigment, anthraquinone, indigo family, quinacridone, two oxazine pigments, methane and other polycyclic aromatic pigments etc..

From the production perspective classification can be divided into titanium pigment, iron oxide pigments, chromium pigment, lead zinc pigments, pigments, metallic pigments, synthetic organic pigments, has the practical significance of the classification method, often a system can represent a major pigment production industry.

From the application point of view, it can be divided into coatings, pigments, inks, pigments for plastics, rubber pigments, ceramics and enamels, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, pigments for art and so on. A variety of special pigments have some unique properties to meet the requirements of the application. Pigment manufacturers can also be targeted to recommend professional users a range of pigment products.

Acrylic paint

Acrylic pigments are synthetic synthetic pigments. They were invented in 1950s and are made from pigment powder and acrylic latex. Acrylic acid emulsion is also called acrylic resin emulsion. There are many kinds of acrylic resins, such as methacrylic resin, so there are many kinds of acrylic pigments. Foreign pigments manufacturers have produced propylene products, such as acrylic pigments, semi - acrylic pigments and glossy acrylic pigments, as well as acrylic matt oil, polishing oil, molding ointment, and so on. Acrylic pigments are popular with painters. Compared with oil paints, it has the following characteristics:

1., available water, ethylene release, conducive to cleaning.

2. speed drying. The pigment in the pen after a few minutes to dry, do not have to wait a few months to finish to be like painting as glazing. Painters who prefer slow drying pigments can use retarders to retard the drying time of pigments.

3., the colored layer immediately loses its solubility after drying and forms a tough, elastic, impermeable film. This film is similar to rubber.

4., full color, dense, fresh embellish, no matter how to reconcile, will not have "dirty" "ash" feeling. The coloring layer will never be contaminated by oil absorption.

5., the persistence of the works is longer. Oil painting in the film for a long time, easy to oxidize, yellow, hardened, easy to cause cracks in the picture. The acrylic film will never be brittle in theory and will never turn yellow.

6., the biggest difference between the use of acrylic paint and oil painting is with the general water-based pigments operating characteristics, both for watercolor, but also for gouache.

7., acrylic molding ointment contains granules, and there are coarse particles and fine particles of the points, for the production of texture provides convenience.

8. acrylic paint does not cause great harm to the human body. Just be careful not to eat on the line.

9. acrylic paint can be used as its own design culture unlined upper garment, which can highlight individual personality. But it's better to use all cotton clothes, and they're white.

It should be noted that the acrylic painting should be painted on the basis of acrylic paint (GESSO), and don't use oil to paint. Material experts also do not advocate the use of acrylic and oil painting color, especially in the painting of oil painting on the basis of propylene, which is mainly for the permanent preservation of the work. There is no adverse reaction between propylene and oil paint, and the adhesive force should be checked by time when used alternately.

Water-based pigment

Water based pigment is a new type of environmental protection pigment. Compared with traditional pigment, it has the advantages of no poison, no smell and so on. Compared with traditional pigment, it is more in line with the concept of health and environmental protection, and also becomes a trend of pigment

Oil paint

An oil painting paint, consisting of pigment powder, oil, and glue. The market is mostly sold in tubes and can be made by ourselves.

Oil paints are a substance formed by grinding and grinding of minerals, plants, animals, chemically synthesized toner and agents, linseed oil, or walnut oil. It features can be dyed to other materials or attached to a material formed on the pigment layer of the pigment layer has certain plasticity, it can form all kinds of shape and texture Mark painter to achieve according to the tools used. The hue of oil paints depends on the hue of the toner. The oil can make the hue of the toner slightly darker and more saturated.

pigment for Chinese painting

Traditional Chinese painting, also called Chinese painting, is a special pigment used to paint traditional Chinese paintings. Sales are generally

Tubes and blocks of paint, as well as pigment powder. China paint classification of traditional Chinese painting pigment, it is generally divided into mineral pigments and plant pigment two categories, from the use of history, there must be a mineral, after the plant, as the first, after the ink smoke lampblack. The bright color left at the time of ancient rock paintings, according to laboratory tests, found with mineral pigment (cinnabar), obvious characteristics of mineral pigments is not easy to fade, bright colors, seen mostly old age Chang poured paintings have this impression, a large area of azurite, malachite green, cinnabar can let a person feel refreshed! Plant pigments are mainly extracted from trees and flowers.


Gouache is the abbreviation of gouache. There are many kinds of appellation in China, such as advertisement color, propaganda color and so on. Of or relating to an opaque watercolor pigment. As cheap, easy to learn, easy to use, often used for beginners to learn the color painting entry material, the use of simulated oil painting techniques.

Properties of gouache

Gouache color purity and brightness limitations of gouache when wet, its color saturation and oil paint is very high and dry, due to the effect of powder color and lose luster, saturation is greatly reduced, this is the limitation of its color purity. The lightness of gouache is achieved by diluting, adding powder, or having more light colored pigments. Its dry and wet change is very big, often some colors add only a little powder, in the wet and dry, its brightness shows or deep or shallow difference, this is gouache dry and wet reaction. Since the color of dried water becomes generally shallow, it is the most difficult problem to solve with gouache. And the color that contains pink just makes the color of the picture is full of the quality of "powder" peculiar to gouache, but there is a rich middle color, but the color of gouache is far lower than that of oil painting.

Because of the limitations of gouache pigments, there are few large scale ones with gouache paint.

The individual differences of gouache gouache color is most stable, such as yellow soil, red, ochre and orange yellow, yellow, yellow, olive green, pink and green, blue, ultramarine, cobalt blue and so on. However, gouache in dark red, rose red, violet, violet color is very unstable, prone to turn color, not easy to cover. Transparent color less gouache color, only lemon yellow, rose red, violet and other few colors to draw gouache must fully grasp the gouache pigment color by understanding its personality, abilities, ability to cover the size, color of the high and low price. All these problems should be done through continuous practice, so that practice makes perfect.

Limitations of gouache

No uneven appearance occurs when large areas are painted.

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